1 medium head cauliflower, cut into bite-sized florets
5 cloves garlic, peeled and smashed
2 tablespoons olive oil, or more to taste
1/4 teaspoon salt
1/4 teaspoon ground black pepper
1 (16 ounce) package penne pasta
1 cup grated Parmesan cheese
1/4 cup seasoned bread crumbs
1 teaspoon ground cayenne pepper
2 tablespoons salted butter
1/4 cup lemon juice
Preheat the oven to 425 degrees F (220 degrees C).
Toss cauliflower with garlic cloves, olive oil, salt, and pepper in a large bowl.
Spread out in an even layer on a baking sheet.
Roast in the preheated oven, tossing at least twice, until cauliflower is tender, about 30 minutes.
Meanwhile, bring a large pot of lightly salted water to a boil.
Add penne and cook, stirring occasionally, until tender yet firm to the bite, about 11 minutes.
Mix Parmesan cheese, bread crumbs, and cayenne pepper together in a bowl; set aside.
Drain pasta, reserving 1/2 cup cooking water.
Transfer pasta to a serving bowl and add cauliflower and butter.
Stir in cooking water, a little at a time, until desired creaminess is reached.
Add lemon juice and bread crumb mixture, toss, and serve.